Project Description

What is TBI?

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain. The damage can be focal (confined to one area of the brain) or diffuse (involving more than one area of the brain). A TBI can be a closed or penetrating injury. A closed head injury occurs when the head experiences an external physical force, but the skull is not penetrated. A penetrating injury occurs when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue. The resulting injuries can produce altered consciousness, which can impair physical or cognitive functioning on either a temporary or permanent basis.

The forces inflicted on the head in TBI produce a complex mixture of diffuse and focal lesions within the brain. Damage resulting from an injury can be primary or secondary in nature. A primary injury results from immediate damage to the brain tissue or neurons themselves. A secondary injury results from disordered auto regulation and other pathophysiological changes within the brain in the days, weeks and months after injury.

Urgent neurosurgical intervention for intracerebral, subdural or extradural hemorrhages can mitigate the extent of secondary injury. Hypoxic or ischaemic injuries also significantly affect recovery and can be either primary or secondary in nature.

Facts About TBI

How many people have TBI?
What causes TBI?
What are the long-term outcomes of TBI?
What are the costs of TBI?